Ceasefire and Transitional Security Monitoring Mechanism (CTSAMM)
When was CTSAMM established?
The Ceasefire and Transitional Security Arrangements Monitoring Mechanism (CTSAMM) is a monitoring and verification mechanism that transitioned from IGAD Monitoring and Verification Mission (IGAD MVM) in 2015 following the signing of the agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict of South Sudan (ARCSS) in August 2015. CTSAMM’s role of monitoring and verifying the warring Parties compliance to the ceasefire agreement and determining whether any Party has violated the agreement is important in helping to restore peace and stability in the Republic of South Sudan.
What is CTSAMM’s role?
CTSAMM monitors, verifies and reports on the compliance or non-compliance of Parties on Cessation of Hostilities, Protection of Civilians and Humanitarian access as provided for in the agreement on the Resolution of conflict in South Sudan (ARCSS) and the agreement on Cessation of Hostilities, Protection of civilians, and Humanitarian access in the Republic of South Sudan of 21 Dec 2017 (ACOH) (hereafter jointly referred to as Peace agreements)
How does CTSAMM Monitor, Verify and Report on the Peace Agreement Violations?
CTSAMM has deployed twelve (12) Monitoring and Verification Teams (MVT’s) which are located in several parts of South Sudan. The MVT’s work with different partners, networks, Parties to the peace agreement, Communities, Civil society organizations among others. The MVTs monitor and verify the Peace agreement through Patrols, periodic meetings, consultations and discussions with the population, Media sources, Party officials among others.
The MVT’s are trained to monitor, verify and report the implementation of Peace agreement including Cessation of Hostilities, Protection of Civilians and Humanitarian Access. Sexual Gender Based Violence (SGBV) and Child Soldier Recruitment and usage cross cuts all the core areas that CTSAMM monitors and reports on. All violations, including SGBV and Child Soldier aspects are monitored and reported on a daily, weekly and monthly basis.
How do I know that I or another person has experienced Sexual Gender Based Violence (SGBV) and it is a violation of the Peace agreement of South Sudan?
- Sexual Gender Based Violence occurs when a person experiences any form of harmful act that is directed against a person’s will, and on the basis of a person being a woman, girl, boy, man. When the acts include and inflicts physical, sexual, mental harm suffering, torture, threats of such acts, coercion and other forms of violence that deprive a person’s liberty and freedom.
It is a violation of the Peace agreement when it is committed by parties signatory to the Peace agreement or any armed forces or any militia affiliated to such a party.
Who is likely to experience this type of SGBV perpetrated by the warring parties?
- All civilians, women, men, girls, boys, the elderly, People living with disabilities, children and the most vulnerable population in South Sudan.
- SGBV affiliated to armed forces / soldiers can happen to a civilian in any place / space including homes, fields/gardens, in the PoC and/or on the way to and from Protection of Civilian (PoC) Camps, in the bush/forest looking for firewood, fetching water, while displaced and hiding in the bush, among other places.
What are the forms of SGBV that are commonly perpetrated by armed forces affiliated to warring parties, that civilians need to be aware of?
- Rape / gang rape is very common. When a perpetrator (soldier (s), forces a woman, girl, boy, man, to have sex against their will. It involves penetration (however slight) of the vagina, anus, or mouth with a penis or body part and also using objects such as gun, sticks, bottles among others. And also include sodomy – the rape of boys. Rape and gang rape is mostly suffered by women and girls (80%) at the hands of the armed forces parties to the Peace agreement.
2. Physical assault – when a civilian (s) suffer the following and others at the hands of the armed force(s), Physical actions include murder, killings; shooting, body mutilation, kidnap/abduction, hitting, slapping, chocking, cutting, shoving, burning or any other act that results in pain, discomfort or injury or death.
3. Economic Violence – when a civilian suffers the following at the hands or presence of responsible armed forces/soldiers. Include loss of property through theft, robbery, looting; constant fears in accessing and participating in livelihoods – fields/gardens, business centers; suffer ambushes (civilian convoys). Others – being prevented from engaging in livelihood activities such as working in the fields/farms, operating business. Any act that deprives a civilian economic freedom and results into increased poverty.
4. Psychological violence – when actions of armed forces towards a civilian (s) lead to psychological trauma. Actions can affect civilians either directly or indirectly. Include witnessing family members being killed, raped and tortured. Civilians suffer from trauma as a result of Abduction and kidnap, torture, physical assault including body mutilation, family separation, forced displacement and living in bushes/ forests/swamps. Loss of property including witnessing homes being burnt down, belongings looted.
Loss of livelihoods including loss of livestock, food stuff/foods in storage places, forced starvation as result of loss of food, leaving behind unharvested garden among others. Restricted movement including being held at check points. Always feeling threatened by the presence of the armed forces and their actions in their communities including PoC’s, IDP’s, homes.
RECRUITMENT, ENLISTMENT AND USAGE OF CHILD SOLDIERS
Who is a child soldier?
A child is defined under the international law as any person under the age of 18 years. A child soldier therefor means any soldier who is below the age of 18 years. Article 3 (2) (f) of the ACOH Prohibits the recruitment and enlisting of Children by any warring Party into their forces. Additionally, Article 9 (1) of the ACOH makes it mandatory for all parties to unconditionally demobilize any child recruited or enlisted by their group to United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).
In South Sudan, children, both boys and girls are recruited and enlisted as soldiers by almost all warring parties and more often than not used in different capacities. Children play different roles such as fighters, cooks, porters, messengers, spies, sexual roles including forced /early marriage. Some of the child soldiers are used during the fighting and at check points. They are provided with uniform, guns and other equipment and rudimentary skills to function as soldiers.
N.B.! If you witness or experience any violations related to SGBV and Child Soldier recruitment and usage, report to the following firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com; www.ctsamm.org; Juba MVT – 0916242612